Description of Business, Basis of Presentation, and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Feb. 28, 2022
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS, BASIS OF PRESENTATION, AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS, BASIS OF PRESENTATION, AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Description of business
We operate primarily in the beverage alcohol industry with operations in the U.S., Mexico, New Zealand, and Italy producing a powerful portfolio of consumer-connected, high-end imported beer brands, and higher-end wine and spirits brands.
Basis of presentation
Principles of consolidation
Our consolidated financial statements include our accounts and our majority-owned and controlled domestic and foreign subsidiaries. In addition, we have an equally-owned joint venture with Owens-Illinois. The joint venture owns and operates a state-of-the-art glass production plant which provides bottles exclusively for the Nava Brewery. We have determined that we are the primary beneficiary of this variable interest entity and accordingly, the results of operations of the joint venture are reported in the Beer segment and are included in our consolidated results of operations. All intercompany accounts and transactions are eliminated in consolidation.
Equity method investments
If we are not required to consolidate our investment in another entity, we use the equity method when we (i) can exercise significant influence over the other entity and (ii) hold common stock and/or in-substance common stock of the other entity. Under the equity method, investments are carried at cost, plus or minus our equity in the increases and decreases in the investee’s net assets after the date of acquisition. We monitor our equity method investments for factors indicating other-than-temporary impairment. Dividends received from the investee reduce the carrying amount of the investment.
Management’s use of estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Summary of significant accounting policies
Our revenue (referred to in our financial statements as “sales”) consists primarily of the sale of beer, wine, and spirits domestically in the U.S. Sales of products are for cash or otherwise agreed-upon credit terms. Our payment terms vary by location and customer, however, the time period between when revenue is recognized and when payment is due is not significant. Our customers consist primarily of wholesale distributors. Our revenue generating activities have a single performance obligation and are recognized at the point in time when control transfers and our obligation has been fulfilled, which is when the related goods are shipped or delivered to the customer, depending upon the method of distribution, and shipping terms. We have elected to treat shipping as a fulfillment activity. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration we expect to receive in exchange for the sale of our product. Our sales terms do not allow for a right of return except for matters related to any manufacturing defects on our part. Amounts billed to customers for shipping and handling are included in sales.
As noted, the majority of our revenues are generated from the domestic sale of beer, wine, and spirits to wholesale distributors in the U.S. Our other revenue generating activities include the export of certain of our products to select international markets, as well as the sale of our products through state alcohol beverage control agencies, on-premise, retail locations in certain markets, and eCommerce, including DTC. We have evaluated these other revenue generating activities under the disaggregation disclosure criteria and concluded that they are immaterial for separate disclosure. See Note 22 for disclosure of net sales by product type.
Sales reflect reductions attributable to consideration given to customers in various customer incentive programs, including pricing discounts on single transactions, volume discounts, promotional and advertising allowances, coupons, and rebates. This variable consideration is recognized as a reduction of the transaction price based upon expected amounts at the time revenue for the corresponding product sale is recognized. For example, customer promotional discount programs are entered into with certain distributors for certain periods of time. The amount ultimately reimbursed to distributors is determined based upon agreed-upon promotional discounts which are applied to distributors’ sales to retailers. Other common forms of variable consideration include volume rebates for meeting established sales targets, and coupons and mail-in rebates offered to the end consumer. The determination of the reduction of the transaction price for variable consideration requires that we make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the timing and amounts of revenue and liabilities recognized. We estimate this variable consideration by taking into account factors such as the nature of the promotional activity, historical information, and current trends, availability of actual results and expectations of customer and consumer behavior.
Excise taxes remitted to tax authorities are government-imposed excise taxes on our beverage alcohol products. Excise taxes are shown on a separate line item as a reduction of sales and are recognized in our results of operations when the related product sale is recognized. Excise taxes are recognized as a current liability in other accrued expenses and liabilities, with the liability subsequently reduced when the taxes are remitted to the tax authority.
Cost of product sold
The types of costs included in cost of product sold are raw materials, packaging materials, manufacturing costs, plant administrative support and overheads, and freight and warehouse costs (including distribution network costs). Distribution network costs include inbound freight charges and outbound shipping and handling costs, purchasing and receiving costs, inspection costs, warehousing and internal transfer costs.
Selling, general, and administrative expenses
The types of costs included in selling, general, and administrative expenses consist predominately of advertising and non-manufacturing administrative and overhead costs. Distribution network costs are included in cost of product sold. We expense advertising costs as incurred, shown, or distributed. Advertising expense for the years ended February 28, 2022, February 28, 2021, and February 29, 2020, was $826.4 million, $805.0 million, and $769.5 million, respectively.
Foreign currency translation
The functional currency of our foreign subsidiaries is generally the respective local currency. The translation from the applicable foreign currencies to U.S. dollars is performed for balance sheet accounts using exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date and for revenue and expense accounts using a weighted average exchange rate for the period. The resulting translation adjustments are recognized as a component of AOCI. Gains or losses resulting from foreign currency denominated transactions are included in selling, general, and administrative expenses.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash equivalents consist of highly liquid investments with an original maturity when purchased of three months or less and are stated at cost, which approximates fair value.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost (primarily computed in accordance with the first-in, first-out method) or net realizable value. Elements of cost include materials, labor, and overhead.
Bulk wine inventories are included as in-process inventories within current assets, in accordance with the general practices of the wine industry, although a portion of such inventories may be aged for periods greater than one year. A substantial portion of barreled whiskey and brandy will not be sold within one year because of the duration of the aging process. All barreled whiskey and brandy are classified as in-process inventories and are
included in current assets, in accordance with industry practice. Warehousing, insurance, value added taxes, and other carrying charges applicable to barreled whiskey and brandy held for aging are included in inventory costs.
We assess the valuation of our inventories and reduce the carrying value of those inventories that are obsolete or in excess of our forecasted usage to their estimated net realizable value based on analyses and assumptions including, but not limited to, historical usage, future demand, and market requirements.
Property, plant, and equipment
Property, plant, and equipment is stated at cost. Major additions and improvements are recognized as an increase to the property accounts, while maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred. The cost of properties sold or otherwise disposed of and the related accumulated depreciation are eliminated from the balance sheet accounts at the time of disposal and resulting gains and losses are included as a component of operating income.
Interest incurred relating to expansion, optimization, and construction of facilities is capitalized to construction in progress. We cease the capitalization of interest when construction activities are substantially completed and the facility and related assets are available for their intended use. At this point, construction in progress is transferred to the appropriate asset class.
Depreciation is computed primarily using the straight-line method over the following estimated useful lives:
We enter into derivative instruments to manage our exposure to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, commodity prices, and interest rates. We enter into derivatives for risk management purposes only, including derivatives designated in hedge accounting relationships as well as those derivatives utilized as economic hedges. We do not enter into derivatives for trading or speculative purposes. We recognize all derivatives as either assets or liabilities and measure those instruments at estimated fair value (see Notes 6 and 7). We present our derivative positions gross on our balance sheets.
The change in the fair value of outstanding cash flow hedges is deferred in stockholders’ equity as a component of AOCI. For all periods presented herein, gains or losses deferred in stockholders’ equity as a component of AOCI are recognized in our results of operations in the same period in which the hedged items are recognized and on the same financial statement line item as the hedged items.
Changes in fair values for derivative instruments not designated in a hedge accounting relationship are recognized directly in our results of operations each period and on the same financial statement line item as the hedged item. For purposes of measuring segment operating performance, the net gain (loss) from the changes in fair value of our undesignated commodity derivative contracts, prior to settlement, is reported outside of segment operating results until such time that the underlying exposure is recognized in the segment operating results. Upon settlement, the net gain (loss) from the changes in fair value of the undesignated commodity derivative contracts is reported in the appropriate operating segment, allowing our operating segment results to reflect the economic effects of the commodity derivative contracts without the resulting unrealized mark to fair value volatility.
Cash flows from the settlement of derivatives, including both economic hedges and those designated in hedge accounting relationships, appear on our statements of cash flows in the same categories as the cash flows of the hedged items.
Fair value of financial instruments
We calculate the estimated fair value of financial instruments using quoted market prices whenever available. When quoted market prices are not available, we use standard pricing models for various types of financial instruments (such as forwards, options, swaps, and convertible debt) which take into account the present value of estimated future cash flows (see Note 7).
Goodwill and other intangible assets
Goodwill is allocated to the reporting unit in which the business that created the goodwill resides. A reporting unit is an operating segment, or a business unit one level below that operating segment, for which discrete financial information is prepared and regularly reviewed by segment management. We review our goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets annually for impairment, or sooner, if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. We use January 1 as our annual impairment test measurement date. Indefinite-lived intangible assets consist principally of trademarks. Intangible assets determined to have a finite life, primarily customer relationships, are amortized over their estimated useful lives and are subject to review for impairment when events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Note 9 provides a summary of intangible assets segregated between amortizable and nonamortizable amounts.
We use the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. This method accounts for deferred income taxes by applying statutory rates in effect at the balance sheet date to the difference between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities. Certain income earned by foreign subsidiaries, GILTI, is subject to U.S. tax. We treat the tax effect of GILTI as a current period tax expense when incurred. We provide deferred income taxes, consisting primarily of foreign withholding and state taxes, on all applicable unremitted earnings of our foreign subsidiaries. Interest and penalties are recognized as a component of (provision for) benefit from income taxes.
We recognize a tax benefit from an uncertain tax position when it is more likely than not the position will be sustained upon examination. We measure and recognize the tax benefit from such a position based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. Due to the complexity of some of these uncertainties, the ultimate resolution may result in a payment that is materially different from our current estimate of the unrecognized tax benefit liabilities. In addition, changes in existing tax laws or rates could significantly change our current estimate of our unrecognized tax benefit liabilities. These differences will be reflected as increases or decreases to income tax expense in the period in which they are determined. Changes in current estimates, if significant, could have a material adverse impact on our financial statements.
We recognize right-of-use assets and lease liabilities on our balance sheet. We assess service arrangements to determine if an asset is explicitly or implicitly specified in the agreement and if we have the right to control the use of the identified asset.
The right-of-use asset and lease liability are initially measured at the present value of future lease payments, discounted using the interest rate implicit in the lease or, if that rate cannot be readily determined, our secured incremental borrowing rate. The incremental borrowing rates are determined using a portfolio approach based on publicly available information in connection with our unsecured borrowing rates. We elected to recognize expenses for leases with a term of 12 months or less on a straight-line basis over the lease term and not to recognize these short-term leases on the balance sheet.
The right-of-use asset and lease liability are calculated including options to extend or to terminate the lease when we determine that it is reasonably certain that we will exercise those options. In making that
determination, we consider various existing economic and market factors, business strategies as well as the nature, length, and terms of the agreement. Based on our evaluation using these factors, we concluded that the exercise of renewal options or early termination options would not be reasonably certain in determining the lease term at commencement for leases we currently have in place. Assumptions made at the commencement date are re-evaluated upon occurrence of certain events such as a lease modification.
Certain of our contractual arrangements may contain both lease and non-lease components. We elected to measure the lease liability by combining the lease and non-lease components as a single lease component for all asset classes.
Certain of our leases include variable lease payments, including payments that depend on an index or rate, as well as variable payments for items such as raw materials, labor, property taxes, insurance, maintenance, and other operating expenses associated with leased assets. Certain grape purchasing arrangements include variable payments based on actual tonnage and price of grapes. In addition, certain third-party logistics arrangements include variable payments that vary depending on throughput. Such variable lease payments are excluded from the calculation of the right-of-use asset and the lease liability and are recognized in the period in which the obligation is incurred.
We have indemnified respective parties against certain liabilities that may arise in connection with certain acquisitions and divestitures. Indemnification liabilities are recognized when probable and estimable and included in deferred income taxes and other liabilities (see Note 16).
Stock-based employee compensation
We have two stock-based employee compensation plans (see Note 18). We apply grant date fair-value-based measurement methods in accounting for our stock-based payment arrangements and recognize all costs resulting from stock-based payment transactions, net of expected forfeitures, ratably over the requisite service period. Stock-based awards are subject to specific vesting conditions, generally time vesting, or upon retirement, disability, or death of the employee (as defined by the plan), if earlier. For awards granted to retirement-eligible employees, we recognize compensation expense ratably over the period from the date of grant to the date of retirement-eligibility.
Net income (loss) per common share attributable to CBI
We have two classes of common stock with a material number of shares outstanding: Class A Stock and Class B Stock (see Note 17). In addition, we have another class of common stock with an immaterial number of shares outstanding: Class 1 Stock (see Note 17). If we pay a cash dividend on Class B Stock, each share of Class A Stock will receive an amount at least 10% greater than the amount of the cash dividend per share paid on Class B Stock. Class B Stock shares are convertible into shares of Class A Stock on a one-to-one basis at any time at the option of the holder.
We use the two-class method for the computation and presentation of net income (loss) per common share attributable to CBI (hereafter referred to as “net income (loss) per common share”) (see Note 19). The two-class method is an earnings allocation formula that calculates basic and diluted net income (loss) per common share for each class of common stock separately based on dividends declared and participation rights in undistributed earnings as if all such earnings had been distributed during the period. Under the two-class method, Class A Stock is assumed to receive a 10% greater participation in undistributed earnings (losses) than Class B Stock, in accordance with the respective minimum dividend rights of each class of stock.
Net income (loss) per common share – basic excludes the effect of common stock equivalents and is computed using the two-class method. Net income (loss) per common share – diluted for Class A Stock reflects the potential dilution that could result if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock. Net income (loss) per common share – diluted for Class A Stock is computed using the more dilutive of the if-converted or two-class method. Net income (loss) per common share – diluted for Class A Stock is computed using the if-converted method for the year ended February 28, 2021, and assumes the exercise of stock options using the treasury stock method and the conversion of Class B Stock as this method ismore dilutive than the two-class method. For the years ended February 28, 2022, and February 29, 2020, net income (loss) per common share – diluted for Class A Stock is computed using the two-class method. Net income (loss) per common share – diluted for Class B Stock is computed using the two-class method and does not assume conversion of Class B Stock into shares of Class A Stock.
The entire disclosure for the general note to the financial statements for the reporting entity which may include, descriptions of the basis of presentation, business description, significant accounting policies, consolidations, reclassifications, new pronouncements not yet adopted and changes in accounting principles.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef